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All of the conditions described on this page can be diagnosed or treated with a yearly eye exam.

Refractive Error

Refractive error causes blurred vision, but is not typically a sign of eye disease. Even eyes with a high degree of refractive error can be considered healthy if they are correctable to 20/20. Four common refractive errors are listed below.


Nearsighted vision, these patients cannot see clearly in the distance.


Blurred or distorted vision caused by an oval shaped prescription. The eye has a different power in the horizontal direction than in the vertical.


Farsighted vision, these patients cannot see clearly up close.


Presbyopia is an inability to focus on near objects caused by normal age related changes in the eye. Everyone over age 40 is presbyopic.

Ocular Disease

A comprehensive dilated eye health and vision exam includes a lot more than just finding your unique prescription. In some case Ocular disease can threaten vision.


Glaucoma is a sight-threatening condition caused by a pressure increase inside the eye. Glaucoma is a serious concern in eye care because it can sneak up on a patient without their knowing. Patients with Glaucoma can not tell that their vision is being damaged by until most vision is permanently lost. Glaucoma is also painless and can only be detected by a thorough eye exam.

Macular Degeneration

The macula is the portion of the retina responsible for the vast majority of all vision including, central vision, color vision, and high acuity vision. In some patients over the age of seventy the tissue around the macula begins to break down. New research findings have shown that good nutrition can play an important role in preventing or delaying macular degeneration.

Binocular Vision Problems

Headaches, eyestrain, fatigue, blurred and double vision are common symptoms for someone with a binocular vision problem. A perfectly healthy eye with 20/20 vision can still have a disorder of the focusing system or the extra-ocular muscles. Binocular vision problems can be a major problem for young students and can impact reading and learning.

Vision therapy can effectively treat and relieve the symptoms of most binocular vision problems. All children should have a professional eye exam before 30 months, to rule out any possible binocular vision problems.


Cataracts are defined as an opacity of the crystalline lens. Once the lens becomes clouded with a cataract, patients will experience poor visual acuity. Cataracts are a common problem in patients over age 65. Premature cataracts can occur at younger ages and are typically caused by excessive sun exposure. Cataract surgery is usually recommended when best corrected visual acuity is worse than 20/40. Cataract surgery is done on an outpatient basis and is the most common surgical procedure in the United States.

Corneal Neovascularization

Neovascularization (New Blood Vessel Growth) on to the cornea is typically a sign of hypoxia (oxygen starvation) and is most often associated with excessive contact lens wear. This abnormal finding is common in patients who wear their lenses more than 14 hours a day, wear a conventional (nondisposable) soft contact, and in patients who sleep over night in a daily wear contact lens. Patients should never sleep in a contact lens unless it is an extended wear contact approved by an eye care professional.